These pictures are my favorite pictures that I took in Hawaii island this time. Coconut palms and beautiful sunset. It's like a scene in a movie, isn't it? There are several kinds of palm trees. Coconut palm is one of these palm trees and make the delicious coconuts.
ハワイ島はハワイ列島の中でも新しい島だと何回か書きましたが、トーマス・ジャガー博物館で、その事がとても良く説明された図を見ました。下の写真の右側に "You are here"と書かれていますね。そこが、キラウエア火山の位置です。そして火山の真下にマグマ溜まりがあります。ここからマグマが噴き上げられ、新しい島が次々と作られては、移動して行くという事が繰り返されているそうです。図によるとハワイ島の左のマウイ島が２番目に新しく、そしてさらに左のオアフ島が３番目に新しい事が分かります。それでは、ハワイ島は今後どうなるのでしょう？下の写真はハワイ島の将来図で、右下の Loihi という部分は今は海底なのですが、これが海面に現れ、ハワイ島はさらに大きくなる事が予測されています。地球の悠久の時をかけたダイナミックな動きはすごいですね。
I wrote that Hawaii island is a relatively new island. I found a good figure that explains history of Hawaii islands. The place, "You are here", indicates the location of Kilauea volcano. Under the volcano, there is a big hot spot plume (mantle plume). Volcanos are generated from the plume and moving to left side in the figure. So Hawaii island is the newest island, and Maui is the next, and Oahu is the third. So what will happen on Hawaii island? The below photos indicates future shape of Hawaii island. Now Loihi, right bottom, is under the sea. But in the future, this place will appear on the sea and thus Hawaii island will become bigger. The dynamic movement of the Earth over long long time is so impressive.
キラウエア火山のハレマウマウ火口の近くには、トーマス・ジャガー博物館があります。トーマス・ジャガーさんは、ハワイ火山観測所を創立し、1940年まで所長を務めた火山学者さんだそうです。その博物館で見た、ペレの毛と涙と呼ばれる火山の生成物です。言わずもがな、左がペレの毛で、右がペレの涙です。ペレの毛は、噴火のときにマグマが引き伸ばされてできるものだそうで、細い繊維状です。直径は0.5 mm 以下で、長さは 2 m 以上になる事もあるそうです。ペレの涙はマグマのしずくが空中で固まったものだそうです。どちらもマグマには見えませんね～。
There is a Thomas A. Jaggar Museum located close to Halemaʻumaʻu crater. Thomas Augustus Jaggar was a Volcanologist, who founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and directed it from 1912 to 1940. In the museum, I saw Pele's hair and Pele's tears. According to Wikipedia, Pele's hair is a geological term for volcanic glass threads or fibers formed when small particles of molten material are thrown into the air and spun out by the wind into long hair-like strands. The diameter of the strands is less than 0.5 mm, and they can be as long as 2 meters. Pele’s hair is deep yellow or gold and commonly found downwind from active vents. Pele’s tears is also a geological term for small pieces of solidified lava drops formed when airborne particles of molten material fuse into tearlike drops of volcanic glass. Pele’s tears are jet black in color and are often found on one end of a strand of Pele's hair.
ハワイで見かけた車のナンバープレートに、Aloha state と書かれている事に同僚が気がつきました。そんな州あったっけ？っと思って調べてみたところ、ハワイ州のニックネームとして 1959 年から広く使われているようです。ちなみに50州ともニックネームを持っているようです。興味がある方は、コチラのサイトをご覧下さい。それにしても、車のナンバープレートみたいなお固い行政が管理している物にまでニックネームが使われるとは。アメリカ本土に住んでいた時にさまざまな州の車を見ましたが、ニックネームでナンバープレートを発行している州はなかったように思います。さすがハワイ。
My colleague found that license plates of car in Hawaii says "Aloha state". What? Aloha state? I did not learn such state in school.So I googled and found that all 50 states have unique nicknames (click here). Aloha state is a nickname of Hawaii state. But I did not see that any other states are using their nicknames for license plate. Oh, I love Hawaii.
I found that Pinto peanuts were growing between lavas at Kalapana in Hawaii island. I'm so amazed that the plant is so strong. This plant looks very similar to peanut. But the plant is planted for covering ground to enjoy its yellow flowers or for feeding cows, not for growing edible yummy peanuts.
ハワイ島の海辺で磯の生物を観察していたら、なんだか不気味なものが岩の間で蠢いていました。これはおそらく多毛類のゴカイの一種ですね。英名は、bristle worm。触ったら毛がゴワゴワしていて、怖いもの知らずの私もさすがに気持ち悪かったです。後で調べたら、ゴカイの仲間にウミケムシというのがいて、それは毒を持っているらしいです。私が触ったのがウミケムシではなくて良かったです。良い子のみなさん、私のように知らない物になんでも触るのはやめましょう。昔、アメリカ人の友達が好奇心が強すぎる私をみて、 "Curiosity killed the cat (好奇心が猫を殺す)"という諺を教えてくれましたが、ホントいつか好奇心に殺されないように気をつけます。
I saw very creepy something moving between rocks. It is probably a kind of bristle worms. I touched it and felt "Ew!". After I studied about bristle worms little bit and found that there are similar worms called stinging or fire worms. These worms have toxins. Whew. I was lucky that I probably touched ordinary bristle worms. Please don't touch strange things like I did. Curiosity killed the cat.
Shores of Hawaii island are made of black lavas and white corals. Thus it is very difficult to walk on them. Sand beaches are very limited. You can see many messages written by white corals on black lavas in Hawaii island. Our tour guide told us its origin. According to him, Triathlon was started in Hawaii.At that time, people wrote names of Triathlon player using white corals on black lavas along to a road where the players passed by. This is the origin of the tradition. Currently, we see many names of lovers or friends or family members. As a matter of fact, I visited Hawaii island 6 years ago to join the same conference. The bottom photo was taken at that time. I wrote my "beloved" boss's name on lavas with my colleagues. This time, I was not able to find his name.
This is a fruit of Noni.Noni juice is popular as a healthy drink. According to Japanese Wikipedia, the juice is not yummy at all with distinctive smell. It is said that the juice has some effects on diabetes, high blood pressure, enhancement of immune response, prevention of heart diseases and cancers, and beauty and health, although there is no scientific evidence.
Do you know what this plant is? I did not have any idea. When I was looking a photo book "Hawaii's flower", I found a picture of young pineapple. This plant is very similar to the young pineapple. Wow. I did not know that young pineapple is reddish. I also did not know that pineapple is not a tree, but a grass. Oh, there are so many things to learn.
I got a ride on an Atlantis submarine at Kailua Kona, Hawaii. Actually, I attended the same cancer meeting three times. So this is the third time to get a ride on the submarine. Since I really love the submarine, I got a ride on it three times. The first time, I did not have any time to take photos, because it was so attractive for me to just watch the sea. The second time, I was thinking how to express my inspiration of this great experience as a art. The third time (this time), I was little calm, and took photos under the sea. The ships in the photos are old broken ships, which are now used as fishing reefs. I saw many fish this time also, and enjoyed a lot.
When I was walking in Kailua Kona city, I saw a small beautiful church. name of this church is Mokuaikaua Church. I checked the infomation of the church later, and found that the church is the first Christian church in Hawaii, which was built in 1820. Walls of the church are made of lavas and corals.
Our tour guide told us that Hawaii island has 13 kinds of weathers out of 16 weathers in the world (It may be 11/13. I'm not sure. Sorry.). The top of the mountains has snow through a year, and the lavas make very dry weather like a desert. The island also has tropical rainforests. We visited one of the rainforests in Hawaii island close to Kilauea volcano, and saw lots of tree ferns. Tree ferns have very hard stems like trees, and it often reaches 5 m. Because there are many fossils of tree ferns, I felt like as if I was in Jurassic Park. New leaves start to grow from a top of trunk. The very new leaves makes a spiral pattern (see the last photo). Our tour guide said that Hawaiian needed to eat the new leaves, when they were starved by disastersin the past, although it is not yummy at all.
ハワイ島にはたくさんの種類のジンジャーがあるそうです。ツアーガイドさんが、ハワイ島は火山の島で土が少ないけれど、ジンジャーは乾燥に比較的強いから生えられると言っていた気がします。写真のジンジャーは Red ginger (レッド・ジンジャー)。花の様に見える赤い部分は松笠状になった苞で長さ10～30cmになります。本物の花は白くて、この苞の中にあるそうです。
There are many kinds of gingers in Hawaii island. Our tour guide told us that ginger is tolerant tolerant of dryness. That's why ginger still can grow in this island, which is made of lava. Name of the ginger in the above photo is red ginger. Red parts are not petals, but bracts. The true flowers are white and largely hidden between the showy red bracts.
Hiloの町で巨大な不思議な木を見ました。この木はBanyan Tree (バニアン・ツリーもしくはベンガルボダイジュ)というそうです。Wikipediaによると、この木は熱帯アジア原産の常緑高木で、典型的な「絞め殺し植物」だそうです。絞め殺し植物なんて初めて聞きました。どうやってバニヤン・ツリーが下のような木になるかというと、まず1) 鳥がなんらかの木の上に実（種）を落とす。2) 種がその木の上で発芽し、何本もの根をその木の幹伝いに下ろす。3) 根が土まで届くと、急速に太く木質化する。4) 着生された木はバニアンに締め上げられ、日光や土中の養分を取られ枯死する。5) 枯死した木が朽ちても、下の写真のようにバニヤン・ツリーが残る。なので幹のように見える所は、実際はバニヤン・ツリーの根の集合体で、バニヤン・ツリーには幹はないそうです。ホントに不思議な木ですね～。
I saw a very big strange tree in Hilo, Hawaii. Name of this tree is Banyan Tree. According to Wikipedia, a banyan is a fig that starts its life as an epiphyte when its seeds germinate in the cracks and crevices on a host tree (or on structures like buildings and bridges). The seeds of banyans are dispersed by fruit-eating birds. The seeds germinate and send down roots towards the ground, and may envelop part of the host tree or building structure with their roots, giving them the casual name of "strangler fig." The "strangling" growth habit is found in a number of tropical forest species. Older banyan trees are characterized by their aerial prop roots which grow into thick woody trunks which, with age, can become indistinguishable from the main trunk. Old trees can spread out laterally using these prop roots to cover a wide area.
Waikoloa Beach Marriott Resort, which is located near the Hilton has heated pools with Jacuzzi. I found a mark "No Diving" there. Ouch! FYI, because Hilton doesn't have any heated pools (water is cold even in Hawaii during winter), I filled a questionnaire from the hotel, and requested that it will be very nice if they have heated pools. They said that they will make heated pools on this August or so.
There is a statue of king Kamehameha in Hilo, Hawaii island. Hilo is the city that has been destroyed by Tsunami several times. So the city has a Pacific Tsunami Museum.The 14 ft Kamehamega statue was sculpted in 1963, but was not erected on this site and dedicated until June 1997. The statue was originally commissioned for $125,000 by the Princeville Corporation for their resort in Kauai. However, the people of Kauai did not want the statue erected there as Kauai was never conquered by King Kamehameha I. Hilo, however, was one of the political center for King Kamehameha I. So the Princeville Corporation donated to the statue to the Big Island of Hawaii. According to my Hawaii guide book, Kamehameha means "lonely person" in Hawaiian. So I wondered why, and examined origin of his name. Before he was born, a prophet predicted that the next child will kill all tribal chiefs in Hawaii. So when Kamehameha was born, the tribal chiefs tried to kill him. But his mother hid him from them. That's why Kamehameha means lonely person. The prophet was right. King Kamehameha conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. Our tour guide told us that cloak of the king was made by feathers of a bird named Oo (right picture). Now Oo is extinct. The king ordered not to kill the bird, so Hawaiians caught the bird, took few feathers from the yellow part of the birds, and released the birds. But when Englishman "discovered" the island, they introduced the beautiful feather cloak to their country. Then many English hunters came to Hawaii and killed the all birds. They also extinguished other birds such as Mamo and Hoa. Humans are so stupid.
I took these photos of sunset at Kalapana, Hawaii island. The area was destroyed by the 1990 Kilauea lava flow from the Puʻu ʻŌʻō vent. Few towns now are under more than 50 feet of lava. Because the lava flowed very slowly, no one was killed. You can't avoid earthquake if you live in Japan. Like that, people in Hawaii need to live with volcano and lavas, I felt.
Our tour guide told us that there are two types of lavas in Hawaii island. One has smooth surface and is called Pahoehoe Lava. This lava was made of very hot lava. Another one is A'a lava, which has rough surface. This lava was made of relatively low temperature-lava. The tour guide said that ancient Hawaiian screamed "A! (Ouch!), A! (Ouch!)", when they walked on the "A'a" lava. That's why they named the lava "A'a" lava. Shore near the Hilton hotel is made of the "A'a" lava (Upper right photo). It was very hard to walk on the lava, even wearing shoes.Lower two photos were taken at Kalapana, that is located south of the Kilauea volcano. All over the place is covered with Pahoehoe Lava. The view was magnificent.
When I was walking around the hotel, I found a notification shown in the upper photo. It seems that there are many Petroglyphs on lava in Hawaii island. Hawaiian ancestors wrote human, animals, fish, and so on. The Petroglyphs in Hawaii is relatively new; many of them were drawn about few hundreds years ago. There are two types of lavas in Hawaii island. One has smooth surface and is called Pahoehoe Lava, and another has rough surface and is called Aa. For Petroglyph, Pahoehoe Lava was preferred.
Name of this fern is Maile-Scented Fern. Hawaiian Name is Laua'e. You see this fern all over the island. This fern has a very unique pattern of spore on its leaves. Thus, it is often used as a design of Hawaiian cloths.
I stayed Hilton Waikoloa Village in Hawaii. Dolphins are living in the hotel's pool. Although I did not have time to swim with dolphins, it will be a great experience to touch and swim with dolphins, such a lovable creature. I wanna try it next time. Now it is a season that wheals come to Hawaii from Alaska, and raise their children. We saw that many wheals spouted water in the ocean.