ハワイ島はハワイ列島の中でも新しい島だと何回か書きましたが、トーマス・ジャガー博物館で、その事がとても良く説明された図を見ました。下の写真の右側に "You are here"と書かれていますね。そこが、キラウエア火山の位置です。そして火山の真下にマグマ溜まりがあります。ここからマグマが噴き上げられ、新しい島が次々と作られては、移動して行くという事が繰り返されているそうです。図によるとハワイ島の左のマウイ島が２番目に新しく、そしてさらに左のオアフ島が３番目に新しい事が分かります。それでは、ハワイ島は今後どうなるのでしょう？下の写真はハワイ島の将来図で、右下の Loihi という部分は今は海底なのですが、これが海面に現れ、ハワイ島はさらに大きくなる事が予測されています。地球の悠久の時をかけたダイナミックな動きはすごいですね。
I wrote that Hawaii island is a relatively new island. I found a good figure that explains history of Hawaii islands. The place, "You are here", indicates the location of Kilauea volcano. Under the volcano, there is a big hot spot plume (mantle plume). Volcanos are generated from the plume and moving to left side in the figure. So Hawaii island is the newest island, and Maui is the next, and Oahu is the third. So what will happen on Hawaii island? The below photos indicates future shape of Hawaii island. Now Loihi, right bottom, is under the sea. But in the future, this place will appear on the sea and thus Hawaii island will become bigger. The dynamic movement of the Earth over long long time is so impressive.
キラウエア火山のハレマウマウ火口の近くには、トーマス・ジャガー博物館があります。トーマス・ジャガーさんは、ハワイ火山観測所を創立し、1940年まで所長を務めた火山学者さんだそうです。その博物館で見た、ペレの毛と涙と呼ばれる火山の生成物です。言わずもがな、左がペレの毛で、右がペレの涙です。ペレの毛は、噴火のときにマグマが引き伸ばされてできるものだそうで、細い繊維状です。直径は0.5 mm 以下で、長さは 2 m 以上になる事もあるそうです。ペレの涙はマグマのしずくが空中で固まったものだそうです。どちらもマグマには見えませんね～。
There is a Thomas A. Jaggar Museum located close to Halemaʻumaʻu crater. Thomas Augustus Jaggar was a Volcanologist, who founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and directed it from 1912 to 1940. In the museum, I saw Pele's hair and Pele's tears. According to Wikipedia, Pele's hair is a geological term for volcanic glass threads or fibers formed when small particles of molten material are thrown into the air and spun out by the wind into long hair-like strands. The diameter of the strands is less than 0.5 mm, and they can be as long as 2 meters. Pele’s hair is deep yellow or gold and commonly found downwind from active vents. Pele’s tears is also a geological term for small pieces of solidified lava drops formed when airborne particles of molten material fuse into tearlike drops of volcanic glass. Pele’s tears are jet black in color and are often found on one end of a strand of Pele's hair.
I found that Pinto peanuts were growing between lavas at Kalapana in Hawaii island. I'm so amazed that the plant is so strong. This plant looks very similar to peanut. But the plant is planted for covering ground to enjoy its yellow flowers or for feeding cows, not for growing edible yummy peanuts.
Do you know what this plant is? I did not have any idea. When I was looking a photo book "Hawaii's flower", I found a picture of young pineapple. This plant is very similar to the young pineapple. Wow. I did not know that young pineapple is reddish. I also did not know that pineapple is not a tree, but a grass. Oh, there are so many things to learn.
Our tour guide told us that there are two types of lavas in Hawaii island. One has smooth surface and is called Pahoehoe Lava. This lava was made of very hot lava. Another one is A'a lava, which has rough surface. This lava was made of relatively low temperature-lava. The tour guide said that ancient Hawaiian screamed "A! (Ouch!), A! (Ouch!)", when they walked on the "A'a" lava. That's why they named the lava "A'a" lava. Shore near the Hilton hotel is made of the "A'a" lava (Upper right photo). It was very hard to walk on the lava, even wearing shoes.Lower two photos were taken at Kalapana, that is located south of the Kilauea volcano. All over the place is covered with Pahoehoe Lava. The view was magnificent.
When I was walking around the hotel, I found a notification shown in the upper photo. It seems that there are many Petroglyphs on lava in Hawaii island. Hawaiian ancestors wrote human, animals, fish, and so on. The Petroglyphs in Hawaii is relatively new; many of them were drawn about few hundreds years ago. There are two types of lavas in Hawaii island. One has smooth surface and is called Pahoehoe Lava, and another has rough surface and is called Aa. For Petroglyph, Pahoehoe Lava was preferred.
These are Plumeria flowers. I think that flowers of Plumeria, Hibiscus, and Bougainvillea are the three representative flowers in Hawaii. Hibiscus may be more gorgeous than Plumeria, but I love Plumeria, because it is so cute.
Name of this bird is Pacific Golden-Plover. This bird is one of Hawaii's most familiar bird. It nest in Siberia and Alaska and migrate to Hawaii, east Asia, Australia, India, and east Africa for the winter months. During the way, the bird drops by Japan. The bird walks very cutely using its long legs.
When I went back from work, I found a flower chafer at front door of my house. Japanese name of this insect is probably Shiroten Hanamuguri (scientific name is Protaetia orientalis submarumorea). But there is another very similar flower chafer named Shirahoshi hanamuguri (scientific name is Protaetia brevitarsis brevutarsis). I compared photos of the two flower chafer posted on web sites. But it's very difficult to distinguish.
We saw this beautiful big butterfly at lakeside of the Lake Ashi in Hakone. We can see this butterfly in Tokyo too. Actually, I was feeding caterpillars of this butterfly, when I was a kid. If you don't like caterpillar, please don't hate them, because they will become such beautiful butterfly. Japanese name of this butterfly is Kuro-Ageha. Its scientific name is Papilio protenor. It distributes in Japan, Taiwan, China, and Himalaya.
We saw this insect at the Tougendai station in Hakone. Japanese name of this insect is Kimawari. Its scientific name is Plesiophthalmus nigrocyaneus. This insect and its nymph eat decaying log. Actually this insect is not well known in Japan, although the population is not so small. I also did not know this insect, until my collegue told me.
We found this shield bug at the Yagasaki park close to the Karuizawa station. Japanese name of this insect is Ezo ao kamemushi. "Ezo" means "Hokkaido" in old Japanese, "ao" means blue, and "kamemushi" means shield bug. Even though the name has ezo, it distributes all over Japan.
We found a big long-horned beetle, when we were walking from the Nakakaruizawa station to the Karuizawa station. Its Japanese name is Nokogiri-kamikiri, which means a long-horned beetle with a saw, because its antennas look like saws. Its scientific name is Prionus insularis.
Japanese of this insect is Yamato shiriage. "Yamato" means Japan in old Japanese. "Shiri" means hip, and "age" means lift. Male of this insect lift his hip up (see right picture) like scorpion. Thus this insect is called "Shiri age". But this insect does not prick you. It eats dead insects. Its scientific name is Panorpa japonica. It is endemic in Japan. Color of the insect in the bottom photo is little brighter, but it is known that the insect with brighter color is also the same insect, Yamato shiriage (it used to be called Bekkou shiriage.).
これは軽井沢の雲場池湖畔の草の葉にとまっていたテングアワフキです。カメムシ目アワフキムシ科に属しています。頭の格好が非常に特徴的ですね！8 mm 程度の小さな虫です。学名は Philagra albinotata。こういう変な形の虫を見ると、本当に生物の多様性って面白いと思ってしまいます。
Japanese name of this strange insect is Teng Awahuki. We saw this insect at the Kumoba pond in Karuizawa. There is no English common name. Its scientific name is Philagra albinotata. It belongs Hemiptera, which is an order of insects, comprising around 80,000 species of cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, shield bugs, and others. Its head is very distinctive. I'm always amazed by these strange animals.
In Japan, I learned the word "Prairie", when I was a junior high school student. At that time, since the US was far away, I just remember the word for passing the test. But this time, I saw the Prairie in Colorado! Actually, the Prairie is very boring huge grassland. So I did not take many pictures. The above photo is the only photo of Prairie. Although the landscape of Prairie is not so exciting, I like it, since my home town, Tokyo, don't have this kind of very relaxing scenery.
Garden of the gods を訪ねた時、友達が「Prickly pearだ！」と言いました。指差す方を見ると、そこにはサボテンが。アメリカではサボテンの中でもヒラウチワサボテンと呼ばれる平たいサボテンを Prickly pear と呼ぶそうです。なんで pear (西洋ナシ) なのかは不明です。サボテンと言えば砂漠。実はこのGarden of the gods の辺りは冬には雪も降りますが、岩だらけなので、雪がない時はとても乾燥しています。右の写真は、Garden of the gods の奇妙な形の岩岩に背を向けてまわりの風景を撮ったもの (荒涼とした大地に一本の道が絵になっていませんか？)。まわりはこんな感じの乾燥地帯です。
When we went to Garden of the gods, my friend found a cactus and said "It's a prickly pear!". I checked Wikipedia and found that this kind of cactus is called prickly pear, although it is unclear why it is called "pear". Japanese name of this plant is Hira-Uchiwa-saboten, which means flat Japanese fan-like cactus. You may think that cactus prefers desert. Although garden of the gods has lots of snow in winter, this region is made of rock, thus very dry. So when snow is gone, this region is like desert (See right picture. Apart from the topic, I like the picture. Do you like it?).
パイクスピークはロッキー山脈の東端、コロラド・スプリングスの西16ｋｍに位置する山です。標高は4301m (14110 feet) もあります。1806年に探検家のゼブロン・パイク(Zebulon Pike)によって紹介された為にPike’s Peak と名づけられました。アメリカで最も人々が訪れる山で、年間50万人が毎年山頂に到達するそうです。車やバイク好きの方は、パイクスピーク・インターナショナル・ヒルクライム(Pikes Peak International Hillclimb)という毎年アメリカ独立記念日にコロラド州で行われるレースで、この場所の事を御存知かもしれませんね。
私がコロラドを訪れた前日に2 feet (60 cm)の雪が降り、特に山の上ではひどいブリザードだったようで、今回山頂に続く道は雪に閉ざされ Crystal reservoir (クリスタル貯水池）と呼ばれる標高2057m (6750 feet) の所のちょっと先までしか行けませんでした (写真はその貯水池)。それでも確か3000mは突破したハズ。標高2000m以上になるとかなり酸素が薄く (山頂は麓の50%しか酸素がないそう）、気圧が低くて耳の調節が必要で、貯水池の手前にあった売店で食べたホットドッグを食べたのですが（なぜかおいしかったです。良い空気のせい？）、ホットドッグにかけるマヨネーズの袋はパンパンに膨らんでいました。山頂にはOxygen bar (酸素バー) なんてものもあるようです。私が寄った売店にも Need oxygen? と書かれたTシャツが売られていましたよ。
We visited pikes peak also. Pikes peak is the most visited mountain in North America; more than a half million people reach the summit every year! But Pikes peak is not the highest mountain in Colorado. With an altitude of 14,110 feet above sea level, Pikes peak ranks 31st amoung Colorado's 54 fourteeners, which are mountains with peaks 14,000 feet or more above sea level. If you like cars or motorcycles, you may know The Pikes Peak International Hill Climb (PPIHC), which is an annual automobile and motorcycle hillclimb to the summit of Pikes Peak.
One day before we visited Colorado, Colorado had a 2 feet snow in city, and it was even worse in mountains. Thus, road was closed middle of the way to the summit of Pikes peak. But we reached nearly 9842 feet (3000 m). During the way, we passed the Crystal reservoir, which is located at 6750 feet (2057m). Above photos were taken there. We had a hot dog there. That was yummy. But since the air pressure is very low there, a pack of Mayonnaise was expanded. Our ears also needed to adjust to the pressure. Air was also thin. The store, which we had the hot dog, was selling T-shirts with "Need oxygen?". At the summit, there is a oxygen bar (although we were not able to reach the summit this time), since air has only half the oxygen found at sea level.
今日は、昨日の嵐も嘘のような良い天気でしたね。久しぶりに多摩川に散歩に行ったら、早春を感じさせるオオイヌノフグリのかわいい青い花が咲いていました。オオイヌノフグリの英語の common nameは、Persian speedwell とか、Large Field Speedwell または Bird's-eye なんて言うようです。学名はVeronica persica。ヨーロッパ原産の帰化植物だそうです。だから、Persian (ペルシャの) speedwell って言うんですね。
Yesterday, we had a very very strong spring storm, although I had to go to work for a regular Saturday morning meeting from 8:30 am (Japanese don't consider how dangerous storm is!!!). But it was very warm today. I went to bank of the Tama river, and found small cute blue flowers. The flower name in Japanese is Ooinu-no-huguri that means big dog's scrotums, because of look of its seeds. What a strange naming! English common names are Persian speedwell, Large Field Speedwell or Bird's-eye. Its scientific name is Veronica persica. It is native of Eurasia, but also widespread in the United States, and east Asia including Japan.
I saw a beautiful butterfly named "Kitateha" in Japanese. Scientific name of this butterfly is Polygonia c-aureum. It is found in Japan, Korean Peninsula, China, Taiwan, and Indochina. This butterfly do not die in winter. It passes the winter as an adult (not as a caterpillar, a chrysalis, or an egg). Because usually, insects pass the winter as chrysalises or eggs in Japan, this butterfly is very unique.
暖かい日差しの中、シジミチョウが飛んでいました。いつものヤマトシジミだろうなっと思ったのですが、そろそろ蝶も見納めかと思い、気まぐれで写真を撮ってみました。よく見るとヤマトシジミにはない尾状突起とオレンジ色の中に黒い点が２つ付いていて、とても美しい蝶でした。調べてみたら、この蝶は浦波シジミと言うそうです。黒い二つの点と尾状突起は複眼と触角に似ていて、こちらを頭と思わせて敵を欺くのに有効だとか。この蝶の英語の common name は Peablue または Long-tailed Blue と言うそうで、学名は Lampides boeticusです。Wikipediaによると、アフリカ、ユーラシア大陸、オーストラリアまで広く分布している蝶だそうで、日本では秋に各地で見られるそうです。だから夏場に見かけなかったんですね。
I saw a small butterfly. I thought that it was a Pale Grass Blue, which is very common around here. I took pictures anyway and checked it. It turned out that the butterfly was not a Pale Grass Blue, but a Peablue (Alternative name is Long-tailed Blue). A hind wing has two orange circles with two black spots and also a caudate process mimicking eyes and an antenna. Its Japanese name is "Ura nami shijimi" and its scientific name is Lampides boeticus. According to Wikipedia, it widely distributes in Africa, Eurasia, and Australia. In Japan, we see this butterfly in autumn. That is why I did not see it in summer.
今日は多摩川の河原を散歩中、とっても不思議な虫が目の前にとまりました。軽飛行機みたいな蛾です。どうやらトリバガの一種のようです。こんなへんてこりんな前羽を持つ蛾が世の中にはいるんですね！英語の common name は Plume Moth と言うそうです。Plume は「大羽、羽飾り」と言った意味だそうです。この蛾が属する科は、Pterophoridae科という科です。この科の中にはものすごくたくさんの亜科があって、専門家でも同定が困難を極めるようです。もしこのトリバガの名前が分かりましたら、教えて下さい。どうぞ宜しくお願い致します。
I saw a very strange shaped moth, when I was walking at the bank of the Tama river today. It looks like a light-aircraft. It was very difficult to identify this moth, but it is probably a kind of plume moth. Plume moth family (Pterophoridae) has so many subspecies. I was not able to identify a specific name of this plume moth. If you know what it is, please let me know.
This insect is also a kind of leaf beetle. But its color and shape are just so ordinary, not unique at all. So it is very difficult to identify name of this leaf beetle. I think that this is "kaede hamushi" in Japanese. If so, its scientific name is Pyrrhalta seminigra. But I don't have any confidence. Please let me know if I made a mistake. Thanks. 1/16/2011: Anonymous someone told me that scientific name of this insect is Lema decempunctata.Japanese name is the insect is Tohoshi-kubi-boso-hamushi".
札幌では藻岩山のロープウェイにも乗りました。このカミキリはロープウェイの入り口近くの壁にくっついていました。白い壁に白黒模様が溶け込んで見にくいのなんの。このカミキリの名前はヒゲナガゴマフカミキリというようです。英語の common name はないようで、学名は Palimna liturata。分布は日本の他、シベリアと朝鮮半島だそうです。
I took a ropeway (Aerial tramway) to go to the top of the Moiwa mountain in Sapporo. I found a long-horned beetle at an entrance of the ropeway. Its color is black and white and well camouflaged. Japanese name of this insect is "Hige naga gomahu kamikiri" that means white and black dotted long-horned beetle with long antennas. There is no English common name. Its scientific name is Palimna liturata. It is native to Japan, Korea, and Siberia.
I went to Hokkaido. Hokkaido is a north part of Japan and has lots of nature. I stayed Sapporo, which is a city part of Hokkaido, and used trains to travel around. But even in the city part, Hokkaido has beautiful nature. I walked through a primeval forest. Alternative name of primeval forest is old growth forest, primary forest, ancient forest, virgin forest, and frontier forest. Primeval forest in Japanese is "原生林 (Gen-sei-rin)" that means origin of forest. Although a small path that I walked is artificial, the path is the only thing that human made in the forest. There were huge old trees that reminded me a movie, "Princess Mononoke".
I saw a cute butterfly (skipper) that has big eyes. Japanese name of this skipper is "Ichimonji-seseri". Scientific name of this butterfly is Parnara guttata. We see this butterfly all places in Japan. I did web search and found an article that was published on "Japanese Journal of Ecology" in 1973. The title is "An observation on the migration of Parnara guttata bremer et gray in 1970" written by Kazuyoshi Miyashita. I cited the abstract of this article (see below).
"A marked mass migration of Parnara guttata was observed on September 9,1970,in the Kanto district, Japan. The butterflies in this migration flew against the wind, and their directions observed at different places in the district were generally south or south-west. The peak time of migration tended to be become later towards the south-western part of the district. The starting point and destination of the butterflies are not known, but some discussions on this problem are given. The mean flight speed of the migrating butterflies was estimated to be 8.2m/s."
Wow! This small butterfly can migrate at 8.2m/s!? Although Usain Bolt, the gold medalist of the Olympic, can run 10.3m/s, he is special. The small butterfly can fly faster than ordinary people. Since I was not able to get the full paper, I don't know where the butterflies were came from and where the butterflies went to. There is a book about the migration. If I have a change, I would like to read it.
多摩川でヒメアカタテハを見ました。私はタテハチョウのシャープな感じが好きです。英名は painted lady と言うそうです。タテハチョウ科の羽の模様は本当に綺麗で、画家が描いたよう。Painted lady の名前も、きっと美しい羽の模様から来たんでしょうね。学名は Vanessa cardui または Cynthia cardui。南極大陸を除く全ての大陸に分布していて、現在最も分布が広いチョウの一つだそうです。以前御紹介したナガサキアゲハと同様、温暖化により北上しつつある種のひとつでだそうです。この蝶は移動性が高く、鳥のように「渡り」という習性があって、なんと1,000km以上も飛ぶことができるんだそうですよ。私が今日見たヒメアカタテハも異国からの長旅の後かもしれませんね。お疲れさま。
I saw a painted lady at Tama river. I like its beautiful patterns on its wings. It is like an elaborate painting by a professional artist. Scientific name of this butterfly is Vanessa cardui or Cynthia cardui. It distributes almost global. It migrates like birds. It can fly 1000 km! Wow! The butterfly that I saw today might have came from foreign countries. I wanna say "Nice to see ya!".
I found a small cicada named NiiNii zemi in my institute. I did not have my good camera (OLYMPUS SP-550UZ) with me at that time, thus I used my old camera (CASIO EXILIM EX-Z4). So the resolution of this photo is not so good. This cicada is very small around 2 cm and well camouflaged with tree. It is native to Japan, Taiwan, China, and Korea. There is no English common name. Scientific name of this cicada is Platypleura kaempferi.
お尻の先が白いアブを見つけました。シオヤアブ (塩屋虻) と言うようです。お尻の先の白い部分を塩に見立てた命名だとか。どうやら日本固有種のようで、英語の common name はないようです。学名は Promachus yesonicus と言うそうです。
I found a fly that has white on tip of its tail. Its Japanese name is "Sioya-abu" that means a fly that sells salt. Hmm. The white region looks like salt a bit!? It seems that the insect is endemic in Japan. There is no English common name. Scientific name of this fly is Promachus yesonicus.